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Periodical article Periodical article Leiden University catalogue Leiden University catalogue WorldCat catalogue WorldCat
Title:Two Patterns of Chorus Among the Efe, Forest Hunter-Gatherers in Northeastern Zaire: Why Do They Love to Sing?
Author:Sawada, Masato
Year:1988
Periodical:African Study Monographs
Volume:10
Issue:4
Pages:159-195
Language:English
Geographic term:Congo (Democratic Republic of)
Subjects:Pygmies
dance songs
singing
Peoples of Africa (Ethnic Groups)
Architecture and the Arts
Link:http://jambo.africa.kyoto-u.ac.jp/kiroku/asm_normal/abstracts/pdf/ASM%20%20Vol.10%20No.4%201990/Masato%20SAWADA.pdf
Abstract:The singing and dancing of the Efe (Mbuti pygmies neighbouring the Walese-Karo), who live in the Ituri forest, northeastern Zaire, are described and analysed. The Efe prefer songs of their own origin to those of other ethnic groups. Songs of Efe origin are divided into two phases: Phase I is a 'solo and response' pattern of chorus, Phase II is a 'dense polyphony' pattern of chorus. While Phase I is an introductory phase, the singing and dancing reaches its climax in Phase II. The evening conversation of the Efe is similarly divided into two phases. By comparing the two phases of singing with those of the evening conversation, the author identifies two modes of utterance which rule the two phases in both the singing and the evening conversation, i.e. 'utterance-silence' mode and 'simultaneous utterance' mode. In the former mode, a soloist/speaker sings/speaks while the others keep silent. In the latter mode, all participants sing/speak simultaneously. The process of reaching a climax in the performance of the Efe is described as a transition from the 'utterance-silence' mode to the 'simultaneous utterance' mode. App., bibliogr.
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