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Book chapter Book chapter Leiden University catalogue Leiden University catalogue WorldCat catalogue WorldCat
Title:Systems of pastoral and agricultural production in eastern Sudan
Author:Sørbø, G.M.ISNI
Book title:The Agriculture of the Sudan
Geographic term:Sudan
arable farming
land use
agricultural land
Abstract:For the purposes of this chapter, eastern Sudan includes the whole of Red Sea Province and the major part of Kassala Province. In Red Sea Province, the rural areas are predominantly inhabited by pastoralists and agropastoralists. Most of the rural areas are inhabited by the Beja. Beja traditional law recognizes two types of land rights: collective ownership rights in a territory and its natural resources, and usufruct rights to grazing and cultivated land, to water and to camp sites. In 1926 the Gash Scheme for cotton cultivation was established. The Beja have achieved considerable flexibility in their exploitation of an adverse natural environment, but observations indicate that the long-term ecological viability of Beja pastoralism may be threatened. In the north of Butana, in Kassala Province, nomadism is the main form of land use and camels are the dominant livestock. In central Butana, permanent settlements have been established, based on a combination of animal husbandry and rainfed sorghum cultivation. The Butana is the traditional homeland of the Shukriya. Shukriya territorial rights have been organized formally according to their tribal structure. New patterns of land use arose as a result of the introduction of mechanized farming operations, such as the New Halfa Scheme in the 1960s, which had a considerable impact on Shukriya herding activities. When eastern Sudan is considered as a whole, the general situation with respect to production capacity and ecological degradation is not encouraging. Bibliogr.