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Book chapter Book chapter Leiden University catalogue Leiden University catalogue WorldCat catalogue WorldCat
Title:Irrigation development programmes
Author:Davies, H.R.J.ISNI
Book title:The Agriculture of the Sudan
Geographic term:Sudan
Subjects:agricultural projects
Abstract:In 1956, the year of independence, Sudan's most important export crop was cotton. More than 90 percent of the cotton grown in the Sudan came from irrigated schemes. It seemed logical for the Sudan to look towards irrigated agriculture for its future development and to this end the first of the massive postindependence extensions to the irrigated area was started. Various factors favoured irrigation expansion in the northern and central areas. This paper examines the 1929 and 1959 Nile Waters Agreements with Egypt and the concept of 'century storage'; large new irrigation schemes and their operation, which was similar to the system already established in the old Gezira Scheme; pump schemes and other forms of irrigation. Next, irrigation development in the Sudan is assessed economically, socially, and ecologically. Irrigation expansion has not been the answer to Sudan's economic problems. Furthermore, on the New Halfa Scheme, nomads are disillusioned with the scheme because of the exclusion of livestock and the authoritarian management. The construction of dams across major rivers in the Sudan has had significant effects both upstream and downstream. Irrigation development has also had important effects on the national situation due to the very large capital investments required. Finally, attention is paid to irrigation in southern Sudan. The general conclusion is that the expansion of irrigation has failed to bring about the anticipated improvement in the Sudanese economy. Bibliogr.