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Periodical article Periodical article Leiden University catalogue Leiden University catalogue WorldCat catalogue WorldCat
Title:Buffalo Soldiers in Africa: The U.S. Army and the Liberian Frontier Force, 1912-1927: An Overview
Author:Rainey, Timothy A.ISNI
Periodical:Liberian Studies Journal
Geographic terms:Liberia
United States
Subjects:foreign policy
military assistance
military history
History and Exploration
international relations
Military, Defense and Arms
Abstract:This article focuses on the first formal military relationships between the governments of Liberia and the USA, which began with the arrival of the first black American servicemen, former 'Buffalo Soldiers', to Liberia in 1912. These former commissioned and noncommissioned officers faced a daunting task: to reorganize and train an army which lacked leadership, organization, training, supplies and morale. During the 15-year tenure of American command of the Liberian Frontier Force (LFF), from 1912 to 1927, fourteen former black American soldiers and one civilian served as commissioned officers in the LFF. Attention is paid to the tension and animosity between the American officers and Liberian officials and the rivalry between the American and Liberian officers of the LFF. By the early 1920s, the Liberian government had grown weary of these frictions, and, in conjunction with the US Department of War, established minimum qualifications for service of Americans in the LFF. The Firestone Agreement of 1926 brought to a close the LFF under the command of black Americans. The Agreement laid the groundwork for the formation of an American advisory group to assist in the operations and training of the LFF. Notes, ref.