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Periodical article Periodical article Leiden University catalogue Leiden University catalogue WorldCat catalogue WorldCat
Title:The Treaty between Germany and the Sultan of Gwandu
Authors:Markov, W.
Sebald, P.
Year:1967
Periodical:Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria
Volume:4
Issue:1
Period:December
Pages:141-153
Language:English
Geographic terms:German Togoland
Germany
Subjects:history
colonial conquest
History and Exploration
Peoples of Africa (Ethnic Groups)
colonialism
Abstract:When in the eighties of the nineteenth century the European powers had divided the African coast among themselves, the struggle for the hinterland set in immediately. In consequence of the British and French activiteis in this regard, a German expedition under Dr Gruner startet in November 1894 from Lome to lay claims in the Togo hinterland, in opposition to the other Powers. The change for Gruner's expedition consisted to prove that in those territories in which the French had concluded treaties by force, they had no legal right to do so. Dr. Gruner made several sultans draw up formless certificates (Documents 1-5) in which they stated that their territories belonged to the Sultanate of Gwandu (which the French had not visited. In Gwandu (situated in the sphere of the Royal Niger Company) a treaty (Doc. 6) was concluded. As to the validity of this treaty, it appears from Documents 7, 8, and 9, that the Gwandu authorities refused to sign any treaty. the documents are presented here in facsimile. Added is a map elucidating the German claims. The documents are translated in English, followed by a commentary by H.F.C. Smith and F.H. El Masri. Notes.
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