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Periodical article Periodical article Leiden University catalogue Leiden University catalogue WorldCat catalogue WorldCat
Title:The Implementation and Results of IMF/World Bank-Supported Agricultural Reforms: The Case of Sudan's Gezira Scheme
Author:AbdelRahman, AbdelRahman A.
Periodical:Northeast African Studies
Geographic term:Sudan
Subjects:agricultural projects
agricultural innovations
Agriculture, Natural Resources and the Environment
Development and Technology
Economics and Trade
international relations
Abstract:Cotton is the principal foreign exchange earner of the Sudan. Most of this crop is produced in the Gezira public irrigation scheme. The cotton production crisis of this parastatal in the late 1970s and early 1980s was attributed to the inefficiency of its financial and production relationships. In the early 1980s, the government of Sudan implemented market-oriented reforms in these relationships, supported by the World Bank (WB) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The Gezira Scheme's agricultural reforms provide a test case of the extent to which WB/IMF prescribed microeconomic (cost and price) incentive-generating reforms are effective in agricultural production systems dominated by a high level of State control and by local traditions that are rather market unfriendly. The failure of the reforms to improve productivity was attributed to farmers' lack of response. This is, however, only a partial explanation. Unfavourable economic conditions, a shortage of foreign exchange and high inflation, and the failure of the Economic Recovery Programme undermined any incentives to cotton cultivators, cotton cultivation in the Gezira Scheme being highly capital intensive and heavily dependent on important production inputs. Notes, ref.