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Periodical article Periodical article Leiden University catalogue Leiden University catalogue WorldCat catalogue WorldCat
Title:Ethnohistory and archaeology of the Ju/'Hoansi Bushmen
Author:Smith, Andrew B.ISNI
Periodical:African Study Monographs: Supplementary Issue
Geographic term:Namibia
External link:http://repository.kulib.kyoto-u.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2433/68410/1/ASM_S_26_15.pdf
Abstract:The 'Great Kalahari Debate', which revolved around the degree of isolation of the Ju/'hoansi Bushmen, failed to adequately interrogate the Bushmen on what they knew of their own history. A combination of interviews with Ju/'hoansi elders and archaeological excavation indicates that those Bushmen living in the Sandveld of northern Namibia, although in contact with Kavango farmers, would use them as a convenient source of 'hxaro' exchange items only when needed. This meant only a limited number of exotic pieces were found in the excavations at the 'hxaro' exchange place of Cho/ana in the Kaudom Reserve, Namibia. The archaeology supports the view that the Ju/'hoansi were independent of any agropastoral groups, and their social system was only marginally affected by the external world, through being a source of commodities for 'hxaro'. By way of contrast, hunters living in small rock shelters on the edge of Tswana settlements around Gaborone in Botswana gradually saw their cultural material being completely replaced by exotic goods and food, indicating encapsulation by the dominant society. The archaeological manifestation of differential contact is probably a continuum showing the degree of intrusion of exotic materials into the hunting society. Bibliogr., sum.