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Title:Bloodier than black and white: liberation history seen through detective sergeant Donald Card's narrative of his investigations of Congo and Poqo activities, 1960-1965
Author:Thomas, C.
Periodical:New contree: a journal of historical and human sciences for Southern Africa
Geographic term:South Africa
Pan Africanist Congress
anti-apartheid resistance
About person:Donald Card (1928-)
Abstract:Political struggle as it played out in South Africa made for a messy picture that often defies the hero-and-villain narratives that have invariably been produced and that have seeped into the national consciousness. The present article explores the evasions, omissions and twists that have made possible the black and white liberation history that is currently consumed. It does so through an examination of the Pondoland uprising in 1960-1961, also known as the Congo or iKongo movement, a nascent agrarian protest movement that spread through the Transkei from about 1947 through to 1962, and the activities of the Poqo, generally considered the military wing of the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC). It takes much of its information and insights from the unpublished life story of Donald Card, former police officer and chief investigating officer in the Flagstaff area and former East London mayor. While Card's testimony may constitute a one-sided say-so, it nonetheless deserves to be heard, for it is a new, countervailing and provocative voice. Part of South Africa's liberation history still waits in the minds of the nation's police and informers. Notes, ref., sum. [Journal abstract, edited]