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Periodical article Periodical article Leiden University catalogue Leiden University catalogue WorldCat catalogue WorldCat
Title:The pedagogy of revolution: youth, generational conflict, and education in the development of Mozambican nationalism and the State, 1962-1970
Author:Panzer, Michael G.ISNI
Periodical:Journal of Southern African Studies
Geographic terms:Mozambique
generation conflicts
national liberation struggles
External link:https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03057070903313178
Abstract:This article addresses a lacuna in analyses of FRELIMO's nationalist development during the 1960s and illustrates how African nationalist groups, operating within another nation's sovereign space, could build legitimacy and establish hegemony. Specifically, the article examines the impact of generational tensions between Mozambican youth and FRELIMO party 'elders' that emerged at the FRELIMO Mozambique Institute secondary school in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in the second half of the 1960s, at a particularly critical moment in FRELIMO's anticolonial war against Portugal. In the realm of education, the FRELIMO secondary school was a marker of proto-State development. However, its inability to accommodate the vast majority of refugees unintentionally created educated elites with access to universities abroad. The initial benevolence of FRELIMO's educational project, in turn, ironically undermined its own egalitarian and socialist ideology. Moreover, when some youths resisted the call of FRELIMO to return to fight the Portuguese, their actions exposed the relevance of intergenerational tensions in the power relationships of FRELIMO cadres. In the educational setting of the Mozambique Institute's secondary school, FRELIMO's claim that it was a united front against Portuguese colonialism was exposed by its inability to completely set aside the influence and practices of individualism, elitism, regionalism, sexism and racism from its socialist positions. The intersection of race, class, gender and generational tensions undermined the proto-State policies of FRELIMO and ultimately forced the school in Dar es Salaam to cease operating for nearly two-and-a-half years. Notes, ref., sum. [ASC Leiden abstract]