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|Periodical article||Leiden University catalogue||WorldCat|
|Title:||Ditches and ramparts as evidence of warfare in 19th century Yoruba land: a view from Keesi, southwestern Nigeria|
|Authors:||Odunbaku, James B.|
Alabi, Raphael A.
|Periodical:||Journal of environment and culture (ISSN 1597-2755)|
|Abstract:||Internecine wars were prevalent in Yorubaland during the 18th and 19th centuries, culminating in the construction of ditches and ramparts and other forms of wall barrier by different settlements for defensive purposes. Archaeological reconnaissance and a survey carried out at Orile Keesi, near Abeokuta in southwestern Nigeria, revealed ditch and rampart structural remains and other features and artefacts, including an ash mound, potsherds, iron slag, tuyeres, and human skeletal fragments. Three sets of ditches and ramparts were discovered. They did not enclose the entire settlement but were only constructed in areas that were more susceptible to enemies' attacks. Due to thick vegetation, it was not possible to map the entire ditch and rampart structure. App., bibliogr., sum. [Journal abstract, edited]|