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Periodical article Periodical article Leiden University catalogue Leiden University catalogue WorldCat catalogue WorldCat
Title:Does oil wealth affect democracy in Africa?
Authors:Anyanwu, John C.ISNI
Erhijakpor, Andrew E.O.
Year:2014
Periodical:African Development Review (ISSN 1017-6772)
Volume:26
Issue:1
Pages:15-37
Language:English
Geographic term:Africa
Subjects:petroleum
democratization
democracy
Abstract:This paper uses recent data on historical oil wealth to provide new evidence on the effect of oil wealth on democracy in Africa from 1955 to 2008. The authors find that oil wealth is statistically associated with a lower likelihood of democratization when the relationship is estimated in a pooled cross-sectional and time-series setting. In addition, when estimated using fixed effects and IV-2SLS methods, the strong negative statistical association continues to hold. Indeed, this result is robust to the source of oil wealth data, the choice and treatment of the variables set, and the sample selection. The results also show other interesting and important data. The cross-country evidence examined in the study confirms that the 'Lipset/Aristotle/modernization hypothesis' (that prosperity stimulates democracy) is a strong empirical regularity. Also, the propensity for democracy rises with population size, population density, ethnic fractionalization, having British legal origin or colonial heritage, and having a supportive institutional environment in the form of maintenance of the rule of law. However, apart from oil wealth, democracy tends to fall with linguistic fractionalization and rough (mountainous) terrain. Moreover, consistent with the data, North Africa consistently fails to favor democratic development. App., bibliogr., sum. [Journal abstract]
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