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Title:The third wave: mixed migration from Zimbabwe to South Africa
Authors:Crush, JonathanISNI
Chikanda, AbelISNI
Tawodzera, Godfrey
Periodical:Canadian Journal of African Studies (ISSN 0008-3968)
Geographic term:South Africa
External link:https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00083968.2015.1057856
Abstract:Migration from Zimbabwe has recently been described as an archetypal form of 'mixed migration' in which refugees and migrants are indistinguishable from one another. This paper argues that such a state-centred understanding of mixed migration oversimplifies a far more complex reality and fails to adequately account for the changing nature of Zimbabwean out-migration. Based on data from three separate Southern African Migration Programme (SAMP) surveys undertaken in 1997, 2005 and 2010 at key moments of transition, the paper shows how the form and character of mixed migration from the country has changed over time. The country's emigration experience since 1990 is divided into three periods or 'waves'. The third wave (roughly from 2005 onwards) has seen a major shift away from circular, temporary migration of individual working-age adults towards greater permanence and more family and child migration to South Africa. Zimbabwean migrants no longer see South Africa as a place of temporary economic opportunity for survival but rather as a place to stay and build a future for themselves and their families. Bibliogr., notes, ref., sum. in English and French. [Journal abstract]